Pawn in fiqh is called Rahn, who according to the language are items used as collateral trust. Meanwhile, according to the law means that some property seized as collateral are right handed over, but can be taken as the ransom. Rahn was pawned goods. Rahin is the person who pawned.
The presence of pawnshops in Indonesia is not a stranger anymore. Even this institution became very popular among the people of Indonesia when it arrived ahead of Eid. It has been a tradition for travelers in the capital city to pawn their valuables before the month of Shawwal.
Pawn or Pawn Shop is a credit institution with a pledge system. Such structure was originally developed in Italy who later practiced in other European regions, such as England and the Netherlands. The pledge system is brought into the Indonesian and was developed by the Dutch (VOC), which is about the 19th century.
Pawn business was first institutionalized in Indonesia since the VOC Governor General Van Imhoff founded the Bank of Van Leening . Nevertheless, it is believed that the practice has been rooted in the daily pledge of Indonesian society. The government had just set up a first lien institutions in Sukabumi West Java, with the name Pawn , on 1 April 1901 by Wolf von Westerode as Head of State Pawn first , with the mission of helping people from the bondage of moneylenders by providing loan money to the law gadai. Seiring with the times , Pawn has several times changed its status began as a Bureau Company ( 1901) , the Company is Under IBW (1928 ) , State Enterprise (1960 ) , and returned to the Testament in 1969. ‘s New in 1990 with the birth date PP10/1990 10 April 1990, until the issuance of PP 103 of 2000, Pawn status as a Public Company (Perum) and is one of the SOEs in the Ministry of Finance until now .
Islamic pawnshop comes in response to the Indonesian peoples have the desire to use the pawn service that in accordance with sharia. Habits of Indonesian people who often buy gold as part of a hedging / treasure, making pawnshops as the most sought after institution when they need cash for emergency purposes such as pain, but it is also widely used pledge services when people need cash for wedding purposes, the new school year to put their children to school or college, prep feast and others.
The idea of the establishment of Islamic Pawn institution apart because of the demands of idealism is also due to the success of the Islamic bank and Islamic insurance institutions. After the formation of the bank, BMT, Islamic Rural Bank, and Islamic insurance, the Islamic pawn getting noticed by some practitioners and academics to set up under a separate institution.
Indonesian Islamic pawnshop is Sharia Business Unit from Perum Pegadaian called Pegadaian Syariah. Pegadaian Syariah runs gold pawn services in accordance with the DSN-MUI fatwa No. 25 and 26 year 2002. Perum Pegadaian generally already has about 4700 outlets, 600 of which are sharia pawn outlets.
The practice of sharia pawn is very strategic indeed considering pawnshops image has changed since six – seven years. Pegadaian, now no longer regarded grassroots place to find funds in times of sickness or need their children’s school fees. Pawnshops currently is place also employers seeking fresh funds to smooth business. As an illustration of a handicraft product exporter need quick funds to provide working capital for craftsmen. Then he could have pawned his car to obtain fresh funds several tens million rupiahs. Once finished and exported handicraft products, he also gets paid from foreign partners, as soon as he also redeems the mortgaged car. Business keeps going, the liquidity remains smooth, and the importance of trust in business partners abroad is maintained.